عنوان مقاله [English]
Sheikh Fadlullah Nouri was one of the distinguished and avant-gardes of the constitutional movement. He had well realized the existing problems and challenges that faced Iranian people with full wisdom and said that the despotic regime was the main cause. For the same reason, he believed that people must counter with the autocratic regime in the best way that is constitution of legislature and constitutionalizing the Imperial regime; hence, once constitutional movement began, he made speeches and distributed tracts to insist on this important thing. After the westernized intellectuals involved in the constitutional movement, intellectuals held control of the constitutional movement that Sheikh and scholars had in mind and they rose up for restricting autocracy, all laws written down by intellectuals after establishment of the first parliament he seriously opposed and he published treatises, statements and speeches for their improvement. The martyred Sheikh realized problems and incidences in the constitutional age through deep and precise understanding of the Islamic doctrines and their adjustment with his time and age. This triggered his confrontation with intellectual movements, colonialism and autocracy. The present article, based on historical evidence, intends to analyze the cases by which Sheikh opposed to the laws of the first parliament (laws of intellectuals) such as constitutionalism, transition from the constitutional movement to legitimate constitutionalism, the Constitution, theory of main oversight of Majlis, elucidation of concepts in the Constitution and amendment to the press law.